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Vasily Kirillovich Trediakovsky , a poet, playwright, essayist, translator and contemporary to Antiokh Kantemir, also found himself deeply entrenched in Enlightenment conventions in his work with the Russian Academy of Sciences and his groundbreaking translations of French and classical works to the Russian language. A turning point in the course of Russian literature, his translation of Paul Tallemant's work Voyage to the Isle of Love , was the first to use the Russian vernacular as opposed the formal and outdated Church-Slavonic.
However, his work was often incredibly theoretical and scholarly, focused on promoting the versification of the language with which he spoke. While Trediakovsky's approach to writing is often described as highly erudite, the young writer and scholarly rival to Trediakovsky, Alexander Petrovich Sumarokov , —, was dedicated to the styles of French classicism. Sumarokov's interest in the form of French literature mirrored his devotion to the westernizing spirit of Peter the Great's age.
Benjamin M. Sutcliffe "The Prose of Life: Russian Women Writers from Khrushchev to Putin" (2009)
Although he often disagreed with Trediakovsky, Sumarokov also advocated the use of simple, natural language in order to diversify the audience and make more efficient use of the Russian language. Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov , in particular, expressed his gratitude for and dedication to Peter's legacy in his unfinished Peter the Great , Lomonosov's works often focused on themes of the awe-inspiring, grandeur nature, and was therefore drawn to Peter because of the magnitude of his military, architectural and cultural feats.
In contrast to Sumarokov's devotion to simplicity, Lomonosov favored a belief in a hierarchy of literary styles divided into high, middle and low. This style facilitated Lomonosov's grandiose, high minded writing and use of both vernacular and Church-Slavonic. The influence of Peter I and debates over the function and form of literature as it related to the Russian language in the first half of the 18th century set a stylistic precedent for the writers during the reign of Catherine the Great in the second half of the century. However, the themes and scopes of the works these writers produced were often more poignant, political and controversial.
Alexander Nikolayevich Radishchev , for example, shocked the Russian public with his depictions of the socio-economic condition of the serfs. Others, however, picked topics less offensive to the autocrat. Nikolay Karamzin , —, for example, is known for his advocacy of Russian writers adopting traits in the poetry and prose like a heightened sense of emotion and physical vanity, considered to be feminine at the time as well as supporting the cause of female Russian writers.
Karamzin's call for male writers to write with femininity was not in accordance with the Enlightenment ideals of reason and theory, considered masculine attributes. His works were thus not universally well received; however, they did reflect in some areas of society a growing respect for, or at least ambivalence toward, a female ruler in Catherine the Great. This concept heralded an era of regarding female characteristics in writing as an abstract concept linked with attributes of frivolity, vanity and pathos. Some writers, on the other hand, were more direct in their praise for Catherine II.
In contrast to most of his contemporaries, Derzhavin was highly devoted to his state; he served in the military, before rising to various roles in Catherine II's government, including secretary to the Empress and Minister of Justice.
Unlike those who took after the grand style of Mikhail Lomonosov and Alexander Sumarokov, Derzhavin was concerned with the minute details of his subjects. Denis Fonvizin , an author primarily of comedy, approached the subject of the Russian nobility with an angle of critique. Fonvizin felt the nobility should be held to the standards they were under the reign of Peter the Great, during which the quality of devotion to the state was rewarded.
His works criticized the current system for rewarding the nobility without holding them responsible for the duties they once performed. Using satire and comedy, Fonvizin supported a system of nobility in which the elite were rewarded based upon personal merit rather than the hierarchal favoritism that was rampant during Catherine the Great's reign.
The 19th century is traditionally referred to as the "Golden Era" of Russian literature. Pushkin is credited with both crystallizing the literary Russian language and introducing a new level of artistry to Russian literature. His best-known work is a novel in verse, Eugene Onegin. The realistic school of fiction can be said to have begun with Ivan Turgenev. Fyodor Dostoyevsky and Leo Tolstoy soon became internationally renowned to the point that many scholars such as F. Leavis have described one or the other as the greatest novelist ever. Ivan Goncharov is remembered mainly for his novel Oblomov.
Mikhail Saltykov-Shchedrin wrote prose satire,while Nikolai Leskov is best remembered for his shorter fiction. Late in the century Anton Chekhov emerged as a master of the short story as well as a leading international dramatist. Other important 19th-century developments included the fabulist Ivan Krylov ; non-fiction writers such as the critic Vissarion Belinsky and the political reformer Alexander Herzen ; playwrights such as Aleksandr Griboyedov , Aleksandr Ostrovsky and the satirist Kozma Prutkov a collective pen name.
Nikolai Nekrasov. Fyodor Dostoyevsky. Mikhail Saltykov-Schedrin. While the Silver Age is considered to be the development of the 19th-century Russian literature tradition, some avant-garde poets tried to overturn it: Velimir Khlebnikov , David Burliuk , Aleksei Kruchenykh and Vladimir Mayakovsky. Following the establishment of Bolshevik rule in the October Revolution of , Mayakovsky worked on interpreting the facts of the new reality. His works, such as "Ode to the Revolution" and "Left March" both , brought innovations to poetry.
The poem ",," discusses the leading role played by the masses in the revolution. In the poem "Vladimir Ilyich Lenin" , Mayakovsky looks at the life and work at the leader of Russia's revolution and depicts them against a broad historical background.
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In the poem "It's Good", Mayakovsky writes about socialist society as the "springtime of humanity". Mayakovsky was instrumental in producing a new type of poetry in which politics played a major part. Its leading figure was Maxim Gorky , who had laid the foundations of this style with his novel The Mother and his play The Enemies both His novel The Artamanov Business and his play Egor Bulyshov depict the decay and inevitable downfall of Russia's ruling classes.
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Gorky defined socialist realism as the "realism of people who are rebuilding the world" and pointed out that it looks at the past "from the heights of the future's goals". Gorky considered the main task of writers to help in the development of the new man in socialist society. Gorky's version of a heroic revolutionary is Pavel Vlasov from the novel The Mother , who displays selflessness and compassion for the working poor, as well as discipline and dedication.
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Gorky's works became significant for the development of literature in Russia and influential in many parts of the world. Nikolay Ostrovsky 's novel How the Steel Was Tempered — has been among the most successful works of Russian literature, [ citation needed ] with tens of millions of copies printed in many languages around the world. In China, various versions of the book have sold more than 10 million copies.
The novel's protagonist, Pavel Korchagin, represented the "young hero" of Russian literature: he is dedicated to his political causes, which help him to overcome his tragedies. The novel has served as an inspiration to youths around the world and played a mobilizing role in Russia's Great Patriotic War. Alexander Fadeyev — achieved noteworthy success in Russia, with tens of millions of copies of his books in circulation in Russia and around the world.
Fadeyev served as a secretary of the Soviet Writers' Union and as the general secretary of the union's administrative board from to The Soviet Union awarded him two Orders of Lenin and various medals.