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Hence, it was recommended that the federal government should mandate all petroleum marketing companies to capture and disclose all Social scientists use many different methods, and there are often substantial disagreements about which method is appropriate for a given research question. In response to this uncertainty about the relative merits of different methods, W. This is to use multiple methods simultaneously in the belief that, where one is uncertain about the reliability of any given method, if multiple methods yield the same answer that answer is confirmed more strongly than Against this, methodological purists believe that one should choose a single appropriate method and stick with it.

Using tools from voting theory, we show Du Boisian methodological triangulation to be more likely to yield the correct answer than purism, assuming the scientist is subject to some degree of diffidence about the relative merits of the various methods. This holds even when in fact only one of the methods is appropriate for the given research question.

Its theoretical orientation comes from W. The goal of this paper is to defend the general tenet that time travelers cannot change the past within B-theoretical models of time, independently of how many temporal dimensions there are. Baron Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 98, — offered a strong argument intended to reach this general conclusion.

However, his argument does not cover a peculiar case, i. Loss Pacific Philosophical Quarterly, 96, 1—11 used the latter model Questo breve volume prende in considerazione, analizza e commenta alcune interpretazioni magistrali della filosofia di Giordano Bruno, che hanno attraversato l' ed il ', indirizzandone l'orizzonte di comprensione.

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Il testo inizia con l'interpretazione di G. Hegel e di B. Spaventa, per poi accedere a quella di G. Il volume si conclude con l'analisi ed il commento dell'interpretazione fornita da N. Una piccola bibliografia bruniana conclude il testo. This article analyzes the incidence of digital education in teacher training in themodalities of b-learning and e-learning.

The research proposed three case studies. The frststudy evaluates the efects of a TIa training course in b-learning mode in the digitalcompetence of teachers in an Ecuadorian university. The second study identifed the keycomponents of the instructional design of a postgraduate program in the e-learningmodality of a Spanish university. The third study established a proposal for instructional re-design of a digital education course through The results showed that he instructionaldesign of the training courses does not meet the needs and expectations of the digitalcompetence, nor does it show an improvement in IaT practices in the classroom; the masterdegree analyzed is considered as a valid, innovative and updated proposal for the training ofprofessionals and researchers in Educational Technology and the design of the activities iskey to the promotion of deep learning in online education; and instructional re-design,based on the results of the previous studies, contributes to the quality of digital teachertraining in the University.

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These three studies allow a comprehensive view of the results ofresearch on digital education and university staf training in b-learning and e-learning. Fine argues that existing A-theoretic approaches to passage are no more dynamic, i. I argue that this comparative claim is correct. Our intuitive picture of passage, which inclines us towards A-theories, suggests more than coherent A-theories can deliver. In Finean terms, the picture requires not only Realism about tensed facts, but However unlike Fine, and unlike others who advance McTaggartian arguments, I take McTaggart's paradox to indicate neither the need for a more dynamic theory of passage nor that time does not pass.

But instead of concluding that time does not pass, we should conclude that theories of passage cannot deliver the dynamicity of our intuitive picture. For this reason, a B-theoretic account of passage that simply identifies passage with the succession of times is a serious contender. One of the Bell's assumptions in the original derivation of his inequalities was the hypothesis of locality, i.

That is why violations of these inequalities observed in experiments are often interpreted as a manifestation of the nonlocal nature of quantum mechanics, or a refutation of a local realism. It is well known that the Bell's inequality was derived in its traditional form, without resorting to the hypothesis This can therefore be regarded as a rigorous proof that the hypothesis of locality and the hypothesis of existence of the hidden variables not relevant to violations of Bell's inequalities.

The physical meaning of the obtained results is examined. Physical nature of the violation of the Bell inequalities is explained under new EPR-B nonlocality postulate.

The contrast between the strategies of research employed in reductionism and holism masks a radical contradiction between two different scientific philosophies. We concentrate in particular on an analysis of the key philosophical issues which give structure to holistic thought. A first non-exhaustive analysis of the philosophical tradition will dwell upon: a the theory of emergence: each level of organisation is characterised by properties whose laws cannot be deduced from the laws of the inferior levels of organisation Engels, Morgan ; b clarification Pepper, Henle, Hempel and Oppenheim ; d the proposition of the holistic theoretical and methodological model Novikoff, Feibleman.

Debate: Ciencia vs Filosofía

I then go on to examine the differences that exist between the reductionist and the holistic approaches at various levels of analysis: that is to say, the differences which affect their ontologies, methodologies and epistemologies respectively. I attempt to understand the spirit of a holistic approach to ecology by analyzing the major work of E.

Odum Fundamentals of ecology , , In fact, only in the third and last edition is there a conscious appropriation of the holistic approach by using the theoretical models of Feibleman who, for his part, refers to Novikoff. Finally, Odum analyses the ecosystem as composed of energetic flux and cycles of matter, referring to the trophic-dynamic vision of Lindeman.

That is to say, in my opinion, he juxtaposes a reductionistic methodology and epistemology to an holistic ontology.

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Barcelona: Herder, Madrid: Alianza, Buenos Aires: Club de lectores, Los grados del saber. The body is a highly complex, coordinated system engaged in coping with many environmental problems.


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It can be considered as some sort of opportunity or obstacle, with which internal processing must deal. Internal processing must take into account the possibilities and limitations of the particular body. In other words, even if the body is not involved in the realization of some cognitive explicit task, it is not a neutral factor of our understanding of why a system solves a task in Goldman ; , and with de Vignemont argue for the essential role of the bodily formats or bodily codes respectively: B-formats and B-codes in embodied cognition.


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  6. B-codes are here described as the processing of regions or sub-regions of the central nervous system. They are primarily employed for body control or monitoring, and reused for cognitive tasks. Beyond doubt, this conception provides an excellent starting point for analyzing the internal mostly neural processing in cases of embodied cognition. At the end of this paper, I will argue that the embodiment of cognition needs a conceptual twist.

    Doing that, I refer to some conceptual and empirical considerations. I will also try to show that research on embodied cognition is still not sufficiently anchored in evolutionary and comparative studies on cognition, nor on the nervous system and body morphology. Bigger reliance on these kinds of studies, will make it make possible to gain a deeper understanding of internal processing in embodied cognition.

    Albert Lautman. Mathematics, Ideas and the Physical Real. Simon B. Duffy, trans. London and New York: Continuum, Este texto pretende discutir, do ponto de vista kantiano, o que pode ser ensinado e o que pode ser aprendido em Filosofia. Kant, publicado por G. Kant ministrou este curso por mais de Kant ministrou este curso por mais Universalism: there are at least The traditional proof of prescriptive moral relativism: the argument from variability: Judgments, rules, and shared values are de facto variable in time and space.

    The traditional counter-proof: examples of variability do not prove what skeptics contend.

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    Pre-history of the doctrine -Ancient sophists: either immoralist or contractualist -Modern moral scepticism xvii c. The birth of Cultural Relativism and its ethical implications 4. The 18th c.

    Agriculture does not follow stock-raising ; b racial characters have no relevance in development of civilization; c we are not yet in a position to compare externally identical kinds of behaviour till we have not yet understood beliefs and intentions laying at their roots for ex. How analytic philosophy understood and misunderstood the discussion 4. At the beginning of the 20th c. Eric Westermark combines this view with an old-style ethnographic approach in support of relativity of moralities.

    The moral relativity thesis: there are cases of disagreement that cannot be settled even after agreement about facts. It is clearly subjectivism a metaethical thesis. The normative thesis is that there better and worse codes, and survival values is the normative standard. No argument is possible through different systems Different traditions may coexist for a long time without being able to bring their conflicts to a rational solution. Critical remarks 5. Descriptive universalism or absolutism has a long pedigree, from Cicero on, reaching Boas himself but it is useless as an answer to normative questions 5.

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    Twentieth-century philosophical discussion seems to discuss an ad hoc doctrine reconstructed by assembling obsolete philosophical ideas but ignoring the real theory of cultural relativism as formulated by anthropologists. A distinction between ethoi and ethical theories as a way out of confusions a There are systems of conventions de facto existing. These may be studies from outside as phenomena or facts. The whiteness of white talk lies not only in its having emerged from white mouths, but also in its evasiveness—in its attempt to suppress fear and anxiety, and its consequential [if unintended] reinscription and legitimation of racist oppression.

    I White talk is designed, indeed scripted, for the purposes of evading, rejecting, and remaining ignorant I want to suggest a new point of entry—a way to flip the script, so to speak. I argue that white talk persists because it has an enduring and powerful moral, ontological, and epistemic pay off for white folks. I explore each payoff with an eye towards clarifying how white talk functions to maintain the illusion that we are invulnerable beings. Next, I pause to reply to the popular objection that this particular critique of white talk silences white people in conversations on race.