Preons cannot be point particles, because they would have infinite energy density. In any physical system, energy must be transferred to change information in a bit from one state to another. The universe must be charge neutral if it began by spontaneous quantum fluctuation from nothing.

Protons have charge e and anti-protons have charge -e. Therefore, regardless of how bits of information on the horizon specify a proton or anti-proton, preon configurations specifying protons must differ in 3n bits from configurations specifying anti-protons. Time t B of baryogenesis, in seconds after inflation ended, is determined from the.

After inflation, the. Temperature at any epoch is uniform. Temperature at every point on the causal horizon for every point in the universe is the same because surface gravity of the uniform sphere within the horizon is the same at every point on every horizon. Bits on all causal horizons are in thermal equilibrium, and only two quantum states are available for those bits. Therefore, equilibrium statistical mechanics can be used and occupation probabilities of the two bit states in thermal equilibrium at temperature T H B are proportional to their corresponding Boltzmann factors.

Holographic preon models must link bits of information on the horizon to bits of information specifying location of preon constituents of Standard Model particles in the universe. The wavefunction specifying probability distribution for location of a bit of information in the universe has only two energy levels. If the energy 2 E d to change the state of a bit associated with a preon in the universe and the corresponding bit on the horizon at baryogenesis equals the energy of massless quanta with wavelength characteristic of the size of a closed Friedmann universe with radius.

The small difference in energy of the bits of information on. Substituting from above, proton excess at baryogenesis is. Dependence on R 0 arises because R B ,. For comparison,. The holographic principle accounts for [14] : minimum stellar mass at various ages of the universe; development of large scale structures composed of stars and including star clusters, galaxies and galaxy clusters today; and existence of supermassive black holes. The Standard Model of particle physics can only approximate an underlying finite-dimensional non-local theory involving fundamental entities that are not point particles.

First, the Standard Model is a local field theory, and consistent with quantum mechanics there are non-local effects in our universe [16]. Second, the holographic principle indicates only a finite number of bits of information will ever be available to describe the observable universe.

Third, energy densities of Standard Model point particles are infinite, and infinities in physical theories indicate inadequacies of those theories. Quantum mechanics is non-local [16] , and a holographic quantum mechanical theory is essentially non-local if the wavefunction on the horizon describing evolution of all information available about the observable universe is the boundary condition on the wavefunction describing information distribution within the horizon.

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Then any quantum transition altering the wavefunction on the horizon is reflected in an instantaneous non-local change in the wavefunction describing distribution of information within the horizon and thus describing all physics in the observable universe. All or part of the explanation outlined above must be abandoned if there is convincing evidence that.

Approximating V r by. Curvature energy in Friedmann dimensions just. The scalar field f corresponds to the size of the compact dimensions. Initial state wave. Entropy was injected into the scalar field in Friedmann dimensions and transferred to radiation as the scalar field decayed during inflation. After scalar field.

## Ontological Enigmas: What is the True Nature of Reality?

The extent of inflation at the beginning of the universe is estimated see figure 1 in Ref. At the end of. The scalar field had decayed to radiation and could no longer transfer entropy to the radiation field. Assuming curvature energy of compact dimensions dropped instantaneously to the ground. If T 0 is temperature of the Friedmann universe at the end of inflation, when entropy in the scalar field stopped being transferred to radiation, temperature of the scalar field at the beginning of inflation was.

During isentropic expansion, RT remains. So, injection of entropy from collapse of compact dimensions increased the radius of the three space dimensions of our Friedmann universe by a factor of 1. This 58 e-fold inflation is within limits set by fluctuations in microwave background radiation. When strong-electroweak symmetry broke during inflation, temperature in Friedmann dimensions in. Vacuum energy density today is scalar field energy density per unit coordinate volume i.

Vacuum energy density has been constant since the scalar field decoupled from the radiation field at the end of inflation. It is the energy density associated with creation of one cubic centimeter of space during expansion of the universe. Scalar field energy density in the co-moving volume of the universe at the beginning of inflation can be found from the Schrodinger wave equation. So, energy density. A spatially constant scalar field has only one degree of freedom, and energy density in the scalar field is proportional to the fourth power of temperature.

So, energy density per unit coordinate volume of the scalar field at the end of inflation vacuum energy.

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Novello, M. Padmanabhan, T. Share This Article:. The paper is not in the journal. Go Back HomePage. DOI: ABSTRACT This explanation of the origin of the universe, dark energy, and dark matter is based on quantum mechanics, general relativity, thermodynamics, and Shannon information theory. It envisions our universe beginning with a quantum fluctuation from nothing into an unstable closed space with our familiar three space dimensions accompanied by seven extra space dimensions, the four basic forces unified, and initial radius of the order of the proton wavelength.

Other universes may have formed similarly in the infinite sweep of cosmic time, but are of no practical significance because they are profoundly elsewhere. The holographic principle a consequence of quantum mechanics, general relativity, thermodynamics, and Shannon information theory indicates only a finite number about 10 of bits of information encoded on the event horizon will ever be available to describe all physics within our universe.

## Dark Energy, Dark Matter | Science Mission Directorate

There are no sources or sinks of information outside the universe, so the universe must be described as a closed system. Matter dominance over anti-matter relates to the finite number of bits of information in the universe, as does the fact that theories involving continuum mathematics only approximate an underlying theory involving discrete mathematics.

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ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Tera-scale, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria , Australia Interests: dark matter models and discovery; cosmic matter-antimatter asymmetry; baryogenesis; gravitational waves; Higgs boson physics; supersymmetry; supergravity; unification of fundamental forces; extra dimensions; particle astrophysics; particle cosmology. Elisabetta Barberio E-Mail Website. Itzhak Bars E-Mail Website. Orfeu Bertolami E-Mail Website. Gennady S. Bisnovatyi-Kogan E-Mail Website.

Space Research Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia Interests: Relativistic astrophysics; High-energy astrophysics; neutron stars; black holes; accretion; gravitational lensing. Carl H. Brans E-Mail Website.

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Loyola University New Orleans, New Orleans, USA Interests: general relativity and related mathematical problems; quantum theory and its interaction with the physics of space-time. Stanley J.

Brodsky E-Mail Website. SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Menlo Park, CA , USA Interests: High-energy theoretical physics, perturbative and non-perturbative quantum chromodynamics, light-front quantization and light-front holography, superconformal algebra, renormalization scale-setting, hard exclusive processes, heavy quark phenomena, supersymmetric features of hadron physics, the quark-gluon structure of hadrons and nuclei; two photon-processes, fundamental problems in atomic and nuclear physics.

Thomas Buchert E-Mail Website. Salvatore Capozziello E-Mail Website. International Journal of Modern Physics D. International Journal of Modern Physics E. Journal of Astronomical Instrumentation. International Journal of Quantum Information. Journal of Micromechanics and Molecular Physics.

Reviews of Accelerator Science and Technology. Biophysical Reviews and Letters. Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences. Back to top.